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How To Buy Ethereum

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Purchasing Ethereum can be done easily at any of the Ethereum exchanges below. Once Ether has been purchased for fiat currency (USD, EUR, GBP etc), the funds can be stored on the exchange itself or in your own secure wallet. For small purchases of Ethereum, users may wish to store their crypto on the exchange for ease-of-use. For larger purchases it is recommended that the funds are moved into a secure wallet. Alternatively, investors can trade Ethereum without having to buy and secure the currency through a “CFD trading” platform, some of which are listed below.

When it comes to purchasing Ethereum, whether as an investment or for its variety of uses, there are two main considerations that buyers should take into account.

The first is to consider the cost of purchasing ETH. It may seem obvious, but there are a range of costs that may or may not be associated with your purchase. These costs are broken down into the following:

  • Banking Fees – depending on your country of origin and the banking partnerships arranged by your chosen exchange, it is possible that there will be a fee at either the deposit or withdrawal (or both) stages of your purchase. This fee will vary by exchange and banking method and can range between zero and 5% or more. It is recommended that those buying ETH consider the country in which their exchange operates and investigates any banking fees before making a purchase. Bank transfers are typically the lowest cost methods of buying Ether while PayPal and credit card purchases often incur a cost.
  • Platform Fees – whether trading on an exchange or buying through a simplified platform like Coinbase, there is likely to be a cost incurred as part of the service offered. Exchanges typically charge a diminishing fee based on the volume traded which can be anywhere between 0.05% and 0.25% of the total purchase.
  • Exchange Rate Fees – for those purchasing ETH with US Dollars, Euros or Pound Sterling, there are plenty of exchanges that deal directly with these currencies. The list of Ethereum exchanges below have been automatically geotargeted to your location – if your local currency is not available for buying ETH, it is still possible to make a purchase, however it will require the conversion of your local currency into US Dollars or an alternative. The process of exchanging to another currency will typically be handled by the platform itself, however each currency conversion will bring about a fee.
  • Spread – for those looking to trade Ethereum by buying and selling regularly, it’s important to consider the size of the market “spread”. The spread is the margin between the current buy price and sell price of an asset. Larger spreads require a greater appreciation in the asset’s price before being able to break even or turn a profit. The larger the spread, the more risk taken on by the trader.

The following table does not include details on each type of fee incurred by the buyer as fees can change regularly. Choose an exchange from the table below and investigate their fee structure directly on the platform’s website.

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Historical Ethereum Price (USD)

Purchasing Ethereum from an exchange

The process of purchasing Ethereum through an exchange is simple. Register a free account with an exchange below, deposit US dollars, Euros, British Pounds etc and purchase Ether through the platform.

If you would prefer to just speculate on the price of Ether without purchasing the cryptoasset (and thus not requiring any of the associated security precautions), see this section on CFD trading for Ethereum.

Buy Ether in a few simple steps

The process of buying Ether will vary from one exchange to another, however the principles are very much the same. Those new to cryptocurrency purchases need not be alarmed, many exchange platforms make it as easy as sending a single online payment.

  1. Register at an exchange
    Register at your chosen exchange by submitting a few personal details. Full identity checks are often included later in the process when a deposit or withdrawal is made.
  2. Complete KYC/identity checks
    Before/after depositing, or prior to withdrawal, exchanges must carry out “Know Your Customer” (KYC) and Anti-Money Laundering (AML) checks. Exchanges will require proof of address and photo identification to proceed.
  3. Choose a deposit method
    Each Ethereum exchange will offer their own banking methods. These are often a mix of bank wire transfers, SEPA, credit/debit card, PayPal or Skrill payments among others. Each exchange will typically charge a fee for each deposit method; fee details are usually found in the footer of the exchange’s website.
  4. Make a deposit in US dollars, Euros etc
    Deposits will take from as little as 24 hours to several days to arrive in your exchange account. Deposit times will vary from exchange to exchange and the deposit method chosen.
  5. Buy Ether with your deposited funds
    Once your fiat currency has arrived in your exchange account, you can use this currency to purchase Ether. Beginner friendly platforms such as Coinbase have made this process very simple. Exchanges which make purchases easy have been marked above with a tick symbol under “Beginner Friendly”.

How to Buy Ethereum: An Intro to Ethereum Investment

Ethereum is a blockchain – a ledger containing a history of all transactions – that is secured by a distributed network of machines, each working to process and validate transactions. Ether is the currency of the Ethereum blockchain (although “Ethereum” is used interchangeably to describe both the currency and the blockchain) and is issued to those machines that carry out this work. Ether can then be traded easily for fiat currencies like US dollars or Euros, or it can be held as a speculative asset or for its utility. The Ethereum network now has many thousands of participants who are able to transact with anyone in the world without middlemen.

Transactions on Ethereum are final and immutable. If a transaction is invalid (for example, the user does not have enough funds), then the transaction is not included in the blockchain. The entire history of all valid transactions is stored by many different machines in thousands of physical locations, each copy being identical to the other. The blockchain is a global agreement of the history of every transaction ever made. Due to this distributed nature of the Ethereum blockchain, there is no central point of failure and no possibility of being shut down.

The Ethereum blockchain was launched in July 2015 with a price of less than a dollar and climbed slowly until March 2017 when the cryptoasset experienced an enormous surge in value. The price of Ether peaked in January 2018 at an all time high of over $1400 before crashing to $85 several months later. This guide to buying Ethereum will explain why Ether has value, whether the currency is a good investment and what risks and considerations should be taken into account when looking to buy Ether.

To first understand Ethereum’s value proposition and whether you as an investor should consider purchasing Ether, it is best to consider the unique benefits that cryptoassets offer and why they attract the attention of such a broad range of investors, from VCs through to retail.

Buying Ether with Cash

Cash buying Ethereum is a popular route for users who live in countries where banking is either restricted or inaccessible. This is particularly true for users in places such as Venezuela, China and Russia, where access to cryptocurrencies like Ethereum can be restricted. Fortunately for users looking to buy Ethereum with cash, there is a decentralized marketplace to do just – LocalEthereum is an anonymous marketplace where users can buy and sell Ethereum using several different payment methods including cash. Sellers are verified by both email and phone, and buyers are able to rate the seller on each trade, helping to build a trusted profile for future buyers. Trades can happen immediately with over 100 countries being catered for. There are very few exchanges which will facilitate cash trades for Ethereum, but LocalEthereum is undoubtedly the most secure.

Purchasing Ether anonymously

Some may prefer a “peer to peer” route to purchasing Ethereum, avoiding KYC and AML and in many cases, purchasing larger quantities. Whilst this activity may be frowned upon by your country’s regulators, it is possible to do so – at your own risk – through an online peer to peer exchange like as mentioned above.

Ethereum can also be bought anonymously by using another cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. In this case, a user must first purchase Bitcoin before then exchanging it with Ether anonymously through a marketplace like


Before discussing Ethereum as an alternative investment vehicle and its many benefits, risks and rewards, it is best to list a handful of definitions which should help make this article easier to follow.

  • Cryptoasset
    General term for any asset secured by cryptography, predominantly blockchain-based assets like Ethereum and Bitcoin
  • Decentralized exchange (DEX)
    An Ethereum-based exchange which facilities trade amongst peers through a series of Ethereum smart contracts
  • ERC20 Token
    A token which operates on the Ethereum blockchain under the ERC20 token standard. These tokens have the advantage of being interoperable
    with a vast array of decentralized applications and can be transacted or exchanged in the same way to the native
    Ethereum token (ETH).
  • Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)
    A term for the Ethereum blockchain, specifically referencing its computational ability and use of smart contracts
  • Exchange
    A platform used to buy and sell cryptoassets
  • Fiat currency
    Legal tender such as US dollars, Euros or British Pounds
  • Hard fork
    A software upgrade that requires miners and nodes to make a manual change to the software they run. Unlike soft
    forks, which require only a software update, hard forks can cause a split in the chain as miners and nodes continue
    securing the “old” chain while others move to the new one. Ethereum Classic was a result of such a “contentious hard
  • Market cap
    Is the total value of coin supply multiplied by the price per coin. A general term used to roughly quantify the
    value of a cryptoasset
  • Miner
    A machine that bundles transactions into “blocks” and adds them to the blockchain. Blocks are added to the chain
    when the miner is able to successfully complete a difficult computational problem.
  • Node
    A machine with a complete copy of the Ethereum blockchain. The Ethereum network consists of many thousands of nodes,
    each verifying each transaction on the blockchain
  • Oracle
    A source of real-world truths whose data can be used in the functioning of smart contracts
  • Proof of Stake
    A mechanism to reach consensus on the blockchain by staking funds on the network. Malicious actors looking to attack
    the network by altering the blockchain’s history are penalized by having their stake slashed.
  • Proof of Work
    A mechanism to reach consensus on the blockchain by expending computational resources (“work”). Those conducting
    this work are known as miners. A network with a large amount of mining work is considered to be prohibitively
    expensive to attack.
  • Smart contracts
    An immutable set of instructions (written in code) that execute autonomously. For example, a flight insurance smart
    contract that automatically released funds to relevant parties based on whether a flight was delayed. Data would be
    sourced from one or more “Oracles”

Why is Ethereum valuable?

Unlike other assets, Ethereum is not backed by gold or promised by government. To understand whether Ethereum is worth buying, it is first best to examine the fundamental value of the Ethereum blockchain itself. For the sake of simplicity, this section will look at the Ethereum blockchain only.

Mathematics and scarcity

The Ethereum blockchain is a protocol that operates on the laws of mathematics. Unlike a central bank or government, who can quickly and unexpectedly adjust money supply, Ethereum’s coin distribution is written into immutable code that is publicly available and agreed by consensus. It is the blockchain’s unbreakable encryption and mathematical truths which back this digital asset, as opposed to gold or government promise.

Ethereum is an inflationary currency; 2 new Ether coins enter the system whenever the next valid block in the blockchain is found (a block is found roughly every 15 seconds). The process of finding blocks is a separate topic but the key point is that – unlike Bitcoin, whose supply is capped at 21 million coins – there is no limit on the amount of Ether that will be issued over time. However, this rate of inflation will decrease over time as the aforementioned issuance of 2 Ether becomes a smaller percentage of the overall coin supply.

Furthermore, the planned network transition from proof of work (mining) to proof of stake will remove the role of miners, replacing them with a low-energy and low-cost alternative that requires a smaller block reward. While the exact supply inflation rate of ETH in 2 years time is not known, it is extremely likely to be lower than it is today.

ethereum supply issuance over time

Credit: Eric Conner

Scarcity (Extended)

Ethereum’s issuance rate is not the only factor in determining the currency’s future scarcity. The circulating supply of Ether fluctuates enormously based on the amount of ETH locked in various smart contracts as well as the amount of ETH burned (removed from the network). Locking or burning ETH typically happens for any one of these reasons:

Locked In DeFi
Locking ETH in decentralized finance applications like MakerDAO is becoming enormously popular. By locking ETH in these applications, users are able to borrow other assets against their Ether. This allows for self-regulating borrowing/lending protocols that issue credit based on the size of collateral locked. Currently, 1.5% of all circulating ETH is locked in MakerDAO alone with nearly $500 million borrowed against said collateral.

Locked in Staking
In Ethereum 2.0 a new consensus mechanism called Proof of Stake (PoS) will be used, requiring participants to “stake” (lock) their Ether. PoS is not yet live, however significant efforts have been made into determining how much ETH is likely to be used or needed to secure the network. Current estimates place the total amount of ETH locked under PoS at 30,000,000 – about 25% of the current circulating supply of Ethereum.

Those who lock their coins in the new PoS consensus mechanism will be required to maintain their node in order to validate transactions and communicate with other nodes on the network. Those who do not properly maintain their node or attempt to attack the network will have their stake “slashed”. This effectively burns the node’s funds, which could lead to a significant drop in the number of circulating coins over time.

Gas Fees
EIP 1559 is a proposal which intends to make Ethereum transactions more efficient and with less complexity for the user. The key outcome under this proposal is the inclusion of a minimum fee that will be burned on every transaction. It is estimated that this proposal – if introduced – could burn hundreds of thousands of Ether per year.

The locking and burning of ETH places significant supply-side pressure on the price of Ethereum. With the expected launch of Proof of Stake in 2020 as well as the increased usage of dApps, we can expect the circulating supply of ETH to drop dramatically over time.

Ethereum Reduces Supply Issuance From 3 to 2 Ether

What was the Constantinople update and how will this affect the price of Ethereum now and in the long term?

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Transactions on the Ethereum blockchain are valid based on a few factors, but the most obvious is that the user must have a balance greater than the amount they are sending. The purpose for which they are sending or receiving coins is irrelevant. Any user of the Ethereum blockchain – regardless of location – is able to decide how to spend their value without authorization. Having sovereignty over one’s wealth may seem unnecessary for many in the West but for those in developing nations, or countries experiencing hyper inflation and strict money controls, the ability to untether from their fiat currency system serves as an enormous benefit. Unlike the traditional fiat system, Ethereum offers users full sovereignty if they wish. Of course users can choose to trust 3rd parties if they would like to, but that is not a requirement as it is in the traditional banking space today.


Ethereum transactions are low cost and fast, capable of handling 15 transactions per second with protocol upgrades in the next 12 months that are anticipated to increase this figure to 1000+. To put that into perspective, VISA handles an estimated average of 2,000 transactions per second. Furthermore, 3rd party payment channels such as the Loom Network and FunFair’s “fate channels” have been developed which take transactions off of the Ethereum blockchain with only a small trade-off in security. These “off-chain” scaling solutions also help to reduce fees – increasing the capacity of the network by several orders of magnitude.


Ether has real-world value that is in demand. Major Ethereum exchanges will complete large million dollar sell orders within seconds without moving the price. Liquidity could certainly be higher and brief “flash crashes” have been noted in the past, however for the vast majority of users and investors, Ethereum’s liquidity allows for fast exchange to and from fiat currency.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

Up until now this article has focused on the fundamentals of the Ethereum blockchain and its use case as a currency for transacting value. While Ether serves well as a medium of exchange, the real value of this network is in its ability to operate “smart contracts” on the EVM, furthering its investment case as an alternative asset. Smart contracts are still in their infancy, however a number of industries are on the cusp of major disruption thanks to this technology:

Much like gold, Ethereum and others are being used as a hedge against economic uncertainty. However unlike gold, Ether can also be transacted globally and near-instantaneously through the internet with minimal fees and unlimited amounts. The supply of Ethereum is also transparent and predictable through its open source code which is publicly auditable. In the case of gold, supply shocks are not uncommon.

Selling Ethereum

Many investors choose to buy and hold Ethereum for the long term, predicting that the price will rise in the years ahead. However, at some point in the future it may be prudent to sell some or all of an ETH portfolio. Here's how it works.

Sell Ethereum

Why invest in Ethereum?

There are several reasons why a user might choose to buy or invest in Ethereum, here a handful of examples.

Buying Ethereum as an investment

  • Accessing token sales and other blockchain investments
  • Hedging against the incumbent fiat system
  • Diversifying a traditional portfolio

Buying Ethereum for use

  • Engaging in trustless lending/borrowing
  • Using smart contracts and the EVM
  • Collecting rare digital items
  • Participating in a token sale

Decentralized Finance

Decentralized Finance or “DeFi” is a term used to describe financial applications which run on the Ethereum blockchain. These applications are capable of performing traditional financial tasks but without the need for a middleman or third party. Instead, DeFi applications operate as a collection of smart contracts built on Ethereum, moving value from wallet to wallet using a set of predefined instructions that cannot be altered. The number of decentralized financial applications are currently very limited, however a handful are currently already live on the Ethereum main net and have received a great deal of attention in recent months.

A Brief DeFi Explanation

The most promising of these DeFi apps is MakerDAO’s DAI. DAI is a stablecoin ERC20 token built on the Ethereum blockchain and is pegged to the US Dollar: 1 DAI is equal to 1 USD. The token is capable of holding a stable value due to the way in which the DAI token is issued.

In order to mint DAI, a user must first put up some collateral in the form of Ether. To reclaim the collateral, the minted DAI is simply returned to its associated smart contract. As the price of DAI fluctuates around its 1 dollar peg, users are incentivized (through a stability fee) to burn or mint tokens in order as a mechanism to ensure its price stability.

The system is far more complex than this basic explanation; it involves not only some sophisticated economic games but a system to govern each colletaralized position, liquidating those positions which became overdrawn should the price of Ether fall. The main takeaway as a potential investor is that MakerDAO is one of a number of DeFi applications that are rapidly gaining traction in the space. Over 1.8M Ethereum tokens were locked as collateral in MakerDAO at the beginning of 2019 – over 1% of the total supply of Ethereum.

Other DeFi applications including Uniswap, and Augur-based applications like and, with many of these attracting significant liquidity. Users are increasingly buying Ethereum to take advantage of these DeFi applications and investors would do well to pay attention to this trend.

What investment strategy?

Investment strategies vary, and suitability is subject to your own personal risk tolerance. This guide is for information purposes only and if in any doubt, consult a financial adviser.

Buy and hold
One of the most common investment strategies for Ethereum is “buy and hold”. If Ethereum is to replace even a fraction of fiat currency, its value will be far greater than it is today. The same can be said if Ethereum becomes the currency of choice for the “machine payable web” which will enable billions of devices and AIs to transact value autonomously with each other with unprecedented efficiency.

Given the volatility of Ethereum, those looking to buy may want to consider “dollar cost averaging”. With this approach, an investor would split their total investment into chunks, acquiring Ether over a chosen length of time and buying in at an average price. Dollar cost averaging can reduce the level of volatility that an investor is exposed to in the short term.

Buy and diversify
It is safe to say that predicting the future price of Ethereum is much like predicting the weather in 5 years time. It is unlikely that Ethereum will disappear anytime soon but as Ethereum has shown Bitcoin, it is possible for a little-known cryptoasset to become a dominant force in a short period of time. Purchasing Ethereum to exchange for other cryptoassets like Ripple (XRP) and Ethereum Classic (ETC) is a good way to hedge against the unexpected failure of any given coin. Whilst one coin may fail, many VCs and technologists are in agreement that cryptoassets of some nature will become ubiquitous in the future.

How to Buy Bitcoin

The principles of buying Ethereum and Bitcoin are very similar, however you may need to visit another exchange to purchase Bitcoin. Interested in buying Bitcoin? See this simple-to-follow guide.

Buy Bitcoin

Ethereum trading
Some investors choose to day trade cryptoassets on exchanges like Poloniex and GDAX. This type of trading compounds risk on an already volatile asset and should be treated with caution. Let’s not go there.

Ethereum 2.0 Economics

Ethereum 2.0 or “ETH 2” is a major network upgrade for the Ethereum base layer which is planned to begin in Q1 2020 – possibly as soon as January 3rd. The upgrade combines a number of protocol changes, many of which have been in development for several years and are tipped to greatly influence Ethereum’s position in the market. When choosing to buy ETH as an investment, it’s important to understand how this major network upgrade will alter Ethereum economics, and how the demand and supply of Ether is likely to change as a result.

Proof of Stake

The core component behind ETH 2 is the move from Proof of Work to Proof of Stake. Instead of mining the Ethereum chain for block rewards, users will stake Ether in the network and earn an interest rate for doing so. Through some clever mathematical proofs and economic incentives, Proof of Stake is the mechanism that will secure the Ethereum base layer with minimal electricity requirements and maximal distribution – users are expected to be able to stake ETH with the processing power of a Raspberry Pi.

How much will I earn by staking ETH?
The annual yield for staking ETH will stabalize somewhere between 2% and 34% depending on a number of factors. A full breakdown of ETH 2.0 economics and the various scenarios that could take place can be found here.
How secure is staking ETH?
Proof of Stake will operate at the base layer of Ethereum and therefore the security and reliability of Proof of Stake is of the utmost importance. A security issue in the Proof of Stake mechanism – while negative for the perception of Ethereum – would therefore be resolved at any cost. Staked ETH will be the lifeblood of Ethereum and treated as so. It is possible, therefore, that Proof of Stake will provide the “risk free rate” of blockchain investments.
How much will I be able to stake?
Anyone will be able to stake as much or as little as they chose. For those validating using their own ETH 2 client, the amount staked will need to be at least 32 ETH but with the emergence of “staking pools”, it will be possible for users to stake fractions of an Ether.

For the first few years at least, staking Ether will require a good understanding of command line interfaces and basic PC components. However, those who are not interested in staking may understandably be interested in the price speculation surrounding ETH 2.

ETH 2 Demand
The amount of ETH staked in the network will stabalize somewhere between 500,000 ETH (the minimum required to provide security to the chain) and 110,000,000 ETH. Annual yields for staking ETH will fall somewhere between 34% and 2%. The more validators online, the lower the annual yield and so it is likely that the yield will trend to the lower end of the range over time. If Proof of Stake is able to fulfil the industry’s role as a “risk free rate”, the demand for staking ETH may well drive the price of the currency upwards.

ETH 2 Supply
The circulating supply of ETH will fall as more ETH is locked in the blockchain’s staking contract. Depending on the demand for staking, it is possible that over half the total amount of ETH ever created will be locked in staking contracts. Proof of Stake will also drop issuance of new ETH significantly, decreasing the annual inflation rate of Ether from roughly 2% to as little as 0.5% or even negative. The total inflation rate of Ethereum will be dependent again on the number of stakers but also on the amount of transaction fees burned.

Is it too late to buy Ethereum?

If Ethereum was to become ubiquitous as a digital currency – enabling micropayments among machines and borderless/trustless transactions between people – then it is quite obviously not too late to buy Ethereum. The price of Ethereum in 10 years time is likely to either be $0.00 or an uncapped amount that can only be imagined. It is my personal expectation that Ethereum’s value will only stabalize (i.e. stop increasing) once the currency has achieved its goal of being a globally decentralized platform with billions of devices and humans interacting with it. Of course, the value of the currency will experience enormous highs and lows as investors join and whales leave, but if the technology is to succeed, then the long run price will be much greater than today.

Major network upgrades for the Ethereum blockchain are yet to be released. These upgrades will reduce the supply of Ether tokens while also increasing the capacity of the network by many orders of magnitude. These network upgrades work in both directions; the risk of a failure in any software update could be catastrophic, however the reward of a successful upgrade could be enormous. For this reason, it would be sensible to consider Ethereum a more risky investment than that of Bitcoin, however the upside is considerably greater.

From the content on this page, it should also become apparent just how challenging it can be to purchase Ether, and that in and of itself is one reason why it is unlikely to be too late.

Ethereum wallets

Those who choose to secure their Ether “the easy way” – as described further below – can skip this section.

Before purchasing Ether, it’s essential to become familiar with wallet software and transactions in general. Ethereum – as with any cryptoasset – is extremely unforgiving. One false move when sending or receiving a transaction can result in the loss of an entire bankroll. However, this risk can be somewhat mitigated by following our simple security guide below. The risk can be further mitigated by learning a basic understanding of the technology in this section (it’s not complex) and using caution. Further advice on how best to transact Ethereum can be found immediately below.

An Ethereum wallet is a piece of software that “stores” your Ether funds. Ethereum wallets could be a desktop application, a mobile/web app, a hardware/paper wallet or an online exchange. The official Ethereum wallet can be downloaded at

Ethereum Wallets

If you're looking to buy Ethereum and would like to secure your funds yourself (recommended), then understanding how Ethereum wallets work is critical.

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Light client or “full node”?

New users may find themselves downloading a “full node”. Full nodes can be used as a wallet, however they require the user to download the entire Ethereum blockchain (many gigabytes in size) and remaining in sync with all new transactions. If you are new to Ethereum, then it is recommended that you use a “light client” as they do not require the full blockchain to operate.

Light client Ethereum wallets:

Private key

Now that you have chosen a particular Ethereum wallet, it is important to understand the private key that will be generated with it before depositing any funds. The private key is the key to your wallet; if anyone else has your private key then they also have full access to your wallet and its associated funds. When creating a wallet, you will be asked to take a copy of your private key. The above wallets generate your private key offline, ensuring that it is never sent to a server and therefore cannot be intercepted by a malicious attacker. It is up to the individual to decide how to store and backup their private key. Many users choose secure cloud storage with 2-factor authentication or offline prints of their private key. For larger sums of Ethereum, extra security measures can be taken with “hardware wallets” described further below.

Transactions and addresses

You have now downloaded an Ethereum wallet and secured your private key. Before funding your wallet with Ether, it’s important to become familiar with the make-up of a simple Ethereum transaction.

Your Ethereum wallet will automatically generate a handful of receiving addresses (also known as “public keys”) which are a function of your private key. Unlike the private key, receiving addresses can be distributed freely without risk of theft, and payments to these receiving addresses will add funds to your private key (wallet). For those interested in cryptography, see the Bitcoin wiki on “public key cryptography”.

All transactions on the Ethereum blockchain are publicly visible through a “block explorer” such as As an example, we are going to look at this arbitrary transaction of 0.2 ETH. In this transaction you can see 2 public keys:

From: 0xea674fdde714fd979de3edf0f56aa9716b898ec8
To: 0x3d167984ae0868194ffd97759ff74e342ff3140d

MyEtherWallet example transaction

Using MyEtherWallet as our example software, the above transaction is simply the input of the address we wish to send funds to, the amount, and the gas limit (fee). The latter is set automatically by the software – but it’s prudent to double check the cost as miscalculations have been known to occur.

The from address does not need to be specified. This address is chosen automatically based on the balance of each address.

Once a transaction has been sent, a transaction hash is created and shown to you in the software. This transaction hash can then be put into a block explorer and the same details we have just looked at can be found for your new transaction.

Block height and confirmations
This is the mined block which your transaction was included in. It takes roughly 15 seconds to mine a block. The period between your transaction being broadcast (i.e. sent to a receiving address) to when it is first included in a block is a period in which your transaction will be “pending”. Inclusion in a block is called a confirmation, and every subsequently mined block adds another confirmation. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more “finality” it has. Transactions with 30+ confirmations are generally considered final – they will persist in the blockchain for all eternity.

Block height can also be thought of as the block number since the creation of the blockchain. In our example’s case, the transaction was included in the 3,804,203rd block to be mined.

Receiving transactions
Now that you are familiar with sending Ether, the same idea can be applied to receiving it. In the case of purchasing Ethereum, once it has been bought from an exchange, the exchange’s withdrawal function will ask for your wallet address. Input your address along with the amount of Ether you wish to withdraw to your wallet and then once confirmed, a transaction hash will be shown. The Ether will immediately show as being “pending” in your wallet and you can follow the number of confirmations by searching for the transaction hash (or receiving address) on

Transacting Ethereum safely

Whilst rare, there have been several horror stories of users losing thousands of dollars in Ether from poor due diligence. Here are a few of the key items to check off when making a transaction of a significant sum.

Copy and paste the address
Never type in a wallet address by hand. Addresses are long and case-sensitive, a single mistake will result in the funds being lost forever. There is no charge back or customer support number in Ethereum.

Check the transaction fee
A good Ethereum wallet will show you the calculated transaction fee in dollars and cents. Always double check that the transaction fee is reasonable.

Check, double and triple check the address
Once you’ve copied and pasted the address which you wish to send or receive Ether to, check it over and over until you’re certain it’s correct. Looking at the first and last several letters/numbers will ensure it’s been pasted correctly.

Good wallet software will also confirm the address that you are sending or receiving to. This mitigates the risk of malware intercepting and replacing the address you input.

Test your transaction
One of the driving forces behind Ethereum adoption is the low transaction fees. There is no harm in sending a negligible amount of Ether in order to test your understanding of the process and that all of the details are correct. This will ensure that everything goes smoothly when sending larger amounts.

Securing Ethereum – the easy way

This section of the guide intends to simplify the process of securing Ethereum for non-technical users. This method of security hands over management to the exchange with which you purchased Ether.

In this instance, users can secure their newly purchased Ethereum by leaving it in their wallet on the exchange itself. This introduces some risks, including platform risk (the platform may fail as has been seen before with the MtGox Bitcoin exchange) as well as the risk of digital theft, as has been seen with Bitfinex. Ultimately, some users choose to secure large sums of Ether by leaving it on an exchange, but in doing so they give up their ability to audit and ensure its security. The decision to do this is a personal one – how much do you trust the exchange, and how much wealth are you willing to leave in the hands of that exchange? Whilst it is unlikely that your coins will be stolen or that the platform will become insolvent, it is a possibility that should be accounted for.

A note on exchanges

Securing Ether on an exchange is a legitimate approach to security, particularly if the funds stored are relatively small in size compared to an investor’s overall portfolio. However, when storing coins on an exchange, you do not own the private key. Essentially, you have handed over responsibility of your Ether to the exchange. Exchanges are not the same as a bank and the same financial regulations do not apply. Insolvency or theft may result in lost funds.

Securing Ethereum – the hard way

Securing Ether is a critical step in ensuring that your investment is safe. Unlike many developed countries, the banks will not protect your cryptoassets like they protect your cash. As mentioned, investing in cryptocurrencies is unforgiving and securing Ether properly is critical. Those looking for an easier security option may wish to hand over their wallet management to a 3rd party – details of which can be found above.

Securing Ethereum through a hardware wallet

Hardware wallets are one of the safest ways to secure your Ether. Hardware wallets generate and store your private key offline and at no point is the private key exposed to your connected device (PC). Storing your coins offline in this way mitigates the risk of digital theft – one of the most common attack vectors for cryptoasset holders. As with other Ethereum wallets, a recovery seed is provided on creation and a PIN is chosen to secure access to the device itself. It is the PIN and the recovery seed that must then be secured extremely well as access to either by a malicious individual may result in loss of funds. Further protection can also be taken in the form of 2-factor authentication and multi-signature wallets as discussed below.

The two most respected hardware wallets for Ethereum (and other cryptoassets) are Trezor and the Ledger Nano S. Those storing Ethereum on a Trezor device will need to use it in combination with MyEtherWallet (see the full guide here). For that reason, many users opt for the ease of use that comes with the Ledger Nano S.

Additional security measures you can take

2 Factor Authentication

Whether you choose to store your coins on an exchange, desktop/mobile or hardware wallet, 2 Factor Authentication (2FA) is a highly recommended additional security layer. The 2FA process requires that the user inputs a one time password (OTP) before being able to login to a wallet or send Ether. Google Authenticator is one of the most popular interfaces for 2FA and is used by a range of Ethereum wallets.

Different wallets and exchanges will implement 2FA in different ways, however the additional security that it provides remains the same. A potential thief would not only require your password to steal your Ether, but access to the physical device from which the OTP is generated as well.

Ethereum’s Future

Making a decision to buy Ether today requires a great deal of knowledge about the value of the Ethereum network tomorrow. The future of Ethereum is by no means certain, however there are a number of important developments that are likely to have a positive impact on the demand and price of ETH. The following upgrades all apply to “Layer 1” (infrastructure) in the Ethereum stack. While developers are working on all layers of the stack across countless different teams, it is the infrastructure layer that will unleash the blockchain’s potential in the future. These categories aim to improve capacity and security on the network.

Ethereum 2.0 In 2018, a number of protocol upgrades were combined together under the umbrella term Ethereum 2.0. This term describes the implementation of Proof of Stake and Sharding as well as a number of other key concepts to help improve the capacity and scalability of Ethereum. Ethereum 2.0 is expected to begin its Phase 0 in the summer of 2019 with its genesis block being found on January 3rd 2020. The Ethereum 2.0 spec can be found here.
Ethereum 1.x While Phase 0 of Ethereum 2.0 is expected to begin shortly, there are a number of teams working on improving the existing Ethereum referred to as “Ethereum 1.x”. Most interestingly among the 1.x improvements is “state rent”, a requirement for all contracts and addresses on Ethereum to pay a rent fee to remain accessible (with the ability for recovery of course). Should the proposal be successful, state rent is expected to drastically reduce the amount of “garbage” which would otherwise persist indefinitely on the network, enabling more nodes to sync to an otherwise unsyncable network.
Vyper Programming Language The Solidity programming language, created by Gavin Wood specifically for Ethereum, has been hugely effective in building the first generation of Ethereum smart contracts. However, in being the first of its kind, it also revealed a number of unexpected challenges with smart contract programming. Vyper is a new smart contract programming language which aims to resolves a long list of issues faced by Solidity. Vyper is a “pythonic” (Python-style) programming language with numerous benefits for security, auditability and simplicity. Vyper documentation can be found here.
eWasm Ethereum WebAssembly (eWasm), is a subset of WebAssembly, a low-level instruction set which is not yet widely in use. WebAssembly is incredibly fast, drastically improving the speed at which operations are executed and in the case of Ethereum, will enable developers to build smart contracts in popular programming languages like C, C++ and Rust.

A word of caution

2FA through an app like Google Authenticator has so far proven extremely secure. However, some platforms choose to bypass the use of an app and instead send an OTP over SMS. SMS 2FA should be avoided entirely, as the OTP can – in many cases – be observed without needing to unlock a phone. More catastrophically, social engineering has been used to convince telecoms staff to port a phone number to a new SIM. If an attacker is able to do this, then the phone number alone can be used to gain access to any Ethereum exchange “protected” by SMS 2FA.

Multi Signature Wallets

A multi-signature wallet allows the user to secure their Ethereum by requiring multiple participants to sign each transaction. Typically a multi-signature wallet is “2 of 3”, meaning that 2 of a total of 3 private keys must sign the transaction for it to be successfully broadcast to the network. In these instances the 3 private keys can be split across different physical locations along with their own physical security to ensure that there is no single point of attack.

Different wallets will have their own implementations of multi-signature security.

Extra Security Layers

Ultimately, the security options that you choose should be based around your risk tolerance. The above information should serve as some inspiration for how best to secure your Ethereum but should not be considered comprehensive. Cryptoasset security practices are being developed on an ongoing basis, consult your wallet of choice for their own recommendations.

What Is Ethereum Used For?

Still uncertain about the use cases of Ethereum and long-term investor value? This article goes into detail about some of the more interesting use cases of the Ethereum blockchain.

Read More

Ethereum FAQ

What is the difference between Ethereum and Bitcoin?

Ethereum and Bitcoin are two separate cryptocurrencies. They are often compared to each other due to their popularity but there are actually very few similarities. Bitcoin is used for payments while Ethereum is used for payments and smart contracts. Bitcoin is limited to 21 million coins while Ethereum has a supply of coins that will expand indefinitely (currently at 2 ETH every 15 seconds). There are many more differences between the two and both have very different investment potentials.

When comparing cryptocurrencies, it is advisable to compare coins within a category. For example, comparing Ethereum to another smart contract platform like EOS would be far more relevant than comparing Ethereum to Bitcoin.

Is Ethereum Classic the same as Ethereum?

No. Ethereum Classic is an entirely separate cryptocurrency which split from Ethereum in 2016 following the DAO hack. Ethereum Classic is pursuing the “Store of Value” use-case of cryptocurrencies while Ethereum remains focused on building a “world computer”.

Do I need to be a computer scientist to buy Ethereum?

Buying Ethereum can range from a few clicks in a webapp to a major networking effort, the choice is yours. The content on this page will go a long way to helping you get started, however the recommendation for new users is to begin with a simple exchange like Coinbase makes buying Ether a very straightforward process and from there you can experiment with small transactions before eventually setting up an Ethereum wallet of your own.

When is the best time to make a purchase?

This is the million dollar question that is asked not just in the cryptocurrency space but across all financial instruments. The best time to buy is the moment you’ve decided that the fundamental value of Ethereum will grow in the future. Some investors prefer to avoid short term volatility by “dollar cost averaging“.

Ethereum Price Forecast

Investors of Ethereum will be interested primarily in the future value of the cryptocurrency. Is now the right time to buy? One of the many metrics that can be used to gauge market sentiment is the Ethereum price predictions that we feature on the link below. Our price predictions are sourced from Augur, a “prediction market” built on the Ethereum blockchain. Augur allows users to ask questions like, “will the price of ETH be greater than $1,000 on January 1st 2021?” and other users can then bet on either “yes” or “no”. The platform has so far attracted millions of dollars worth of bets, across markets ranging from cryptocurrency prices through to sports and presidential elections.